10 Science-Based Krill Oil Benefits
- What Is Krill Oil?
- How Does Krill Oil Work?
- 10 Krill Oil Benefits
- How to Take Krill Oil
- Possible Side Effects and Risks
You’ve likely heard about the upsides of fish oil supplements, but krill oil benefits can be particularly potent. Not only does this oil include the same anti-inflammatory properties as an omega-3 fatty acid fish oil supplement, but it offers additional antioxidants and phospholipids.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) dietary guidelines recommend eating at least eight ounces of fatty fish per week[*]. Studies show that taking omega-3 supplements containing EPA and DHA can improve your health and prevent disease, especially if you don’t eat enough seafood[*][*][*].
Taking krill oil supplements may help:
- Prevent heart disease
- Promote healthy brain function
- Reduce inflammation
This guide will inform you about many krill oil benefits, how the supplement works, how to take it, and other essential information that will help you decide whether you want to add it to your keto diet plan.
Krill oil is a marine oil sourced from tiny, shrimp-like crustaceans. You’ll recognize krill as the main food source for larger sea creatures, from fish to whales.
Krill oil contains the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). While the metabolic effects of krill oil are similar to those of fish oil, unlike fish oil, krill oil also provides antioxidants and phospholipids, which enhances its stability and bioavailability[*][*].
The word “krill” means “whale food” in Norwegian. While there are at least 85 known species of krill, most krill oil is harvested from Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill), a small, reddish-pink, shrimp-like crustacean about two inches in length found in the oceans of Antarctica.
Krill are an essential component of marine ecosystems — they feed on microscopic, single-celled phytoplankton (this is where the DHA comes from), and in turn, provide nourishment to birds, squid, fish, and whales.
Because krill are smaller and lower on the food chain than most fish, they don’t bioaccumulate toxins as big fish do. As such, they contain less mercury and other contaminants than larger marine species — a significant reason why more people are looking to krill over fish oil for their omega-3s[*].
The main constituents of krill oil are the polyunsaturated fatty acids EPA and DHA, which are also found in fish oil. The fat content of live krill ranges from about 12-50%, depending on the season[*][*].
When you eat seafood or take omega-3 supplements like krill oil, omega-3 fatty acids can decrease systemic inflammation, lower your cholesterol, and reduce the risk of your blood platelets forming dangerous clots[*][*]. Systemic inflammation can lead to a host of health issues, including autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis.
Along with EPA and DHA, krill oil contains other fatty acids, including:
- Arachidonic acid
- Behenic acid
- Lignoceric acid
- Ln-9 neuronic acid
- Linoleic acid
- Ln-9 oleic acid
- Stearic acid
- Pentadecanoic acid
- Palmitic acid
- Myristic acid[*].
Phospholipids like phosphatidylcholine in krill oil not only improve the bioavailability of EPA and DHA, they also have brain and cellular health benefits thanks to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties[*][*][*][*].
Krill oil contains vitamins A, vitamin E, B12, and folate, all of which are great for reducing and preventing inflammation and supporting brain health[*].
And because krill feed on marine phytoplankton, krill oil also contains astaxanthin, a carotenoid that can cross the blood-brain barrier and protect your brain and central nervous system from oxidative stress[*][*].
The health benefits of krill oil are many. They overlap with those of standard fish oil, in that they’re rich in omega-3 fatty acids. But they also stand apart in a number of ways. Here are 10 top krill oil benefits.
#1: Improves Heart Health
Heart disease is the number one killer of adults in developed countries, but taking omega-3 supplements like krill oil supports heart health and may reduce your risk of heart disease[*].
Krill oil does this in a couple of ways. Krill oil has been shown to increase HDL (“good”) cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol, which is associated with a lower risk of heart problems[*].
Some human studies of krill oil supplementation have shown that krill oil can reduce C-reactive protein, an inflammatory marker that can predict cardiovascular issues[*][*].
Some rodent studies also show how krill oil may affect heart health and blood pressure in humans.
In a mouse study of atherosclerosis (inflammation and narrowing of the arteries) the addition of krill oil to mouse diets inhibited plaque development and reduced the incidence of atherosclerosis.[*] Another rodent study showed that krill oil reduced blood pressure[*].
#2: Promotes Healthy Brain Function
The omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, and phospholipids in krill oil may enhance brain function and protect your brain and central nervous system from harm.
Of the two primary omega-3 fatty acids found in krill oil, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential for brain development and regeneration, while eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) helps regulate mood and behavior[*].
The phospholipids in krill oil have additional antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits[*].
Phospholipids like phosphatidylcholine can reduce damage from oxidative stress and may prevent depression, dementia, and other forms of mental and cognitive dysfunction[*].
In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of 45 men aged 61-72, taking two grams of krill oil per day for twelve weeks improved their performance of mental calculations as well as working memory tasks[*].
A study of the effects of dietary krill oil in aging mice found that the supplement enhanced task performance, protected against oxidative damage, and helped prevent neurodegenerative disease[*].
#3: Reduces Inflammation
Inflammation normally happens when your body releases chemical messengers and immune cells to aid in the healing process after an injury.
However, low-grade inflammation occurs when your body releases these same chemicals in response to inactivity, obesity, high levels of blood sugar, or stress.
Chronic inflammation is linked to arthritis, heart disease, dementia, and other health issues, but taking omega-3 fatty acid supplements like krill oil can reduce inflammation in your body.
In a study of 90 patients with heart disease or arthritis, taking krill oil reduced their inflammatory markers compared to placebo and also reduced their stiffness, impairment, and pain[*].
Additional human and animal studies of krill oil for arthritis have found similar results[*][*].
A separate study found that krill oil reduced inflammatory markers after exercise in rowers[*].
Studies of krill oil in mice have found that it can also lower an inflammatory maker called tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)[*][*].
#4: Lowers Cholesterol and Triglycerides
Taking krill oil supplements can improve your blood lipid levels by lowering LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, raising HDL (“good”) cholesterol, and decreasing triglyceride levels[*][*][*][*][*]. Krill oil may even be more effective at increasing good cholesterol, compared to fish oil[*].
#5: May Suppress Cancer Cell Growth
In vitro (cultured cell line) experiments show that the omega-3 fatty acids in krill oil may inhibit human osteosarcoma cell proliferation and induce apoptosis (cell death) in several different types of human colorectal cancer cells[*][*].
The effects of krill oil on preventing cancer cell growth are even comparable to doxorubicin, a conventional chemotherapy drug[*][*].
#6: Boosts Immune Function
In addition to killing cancer cells, krill oil has also been shown to strengthen your immune system.
In a six-week trial involving 37 healthy young male and female volunteers, krill oil increased levels of natural killer cell cytotoxic activity and peripheral blood mononuclear counts of interleukin-7 (IL-7) compared to exercise with no krill oil[*].
More studies would be helpful, but these effects may point to possible anticancer activity and improved immunity to certain diseases for people who take krill oil.
A healthy gut microbiome is also good for immune health, and krill oil may help with that, too.
#7: Enhances Gut Health
Krill oil supplements may alter your gut microbiome for the better, reducing intestinal inflammation, improving wound healing, and restoring integrity to the lining of your gastrointestinal tract (GI tract).
In a study of rats with ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease, krill oil reduced oxidative stress, colon inflammation, and damage[*][*].
A mouse study examined the effects of krill oil on the microbiome and other health markers. The mice in question were fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet designed to cause high triglycerides, high cholesterol, and obesity[*].
Mice that received krill oil along with their unhealthy food regimen had lower cholesterol, less weight gain, and altered gut flora compared to mice that didn’t[*].
In an in vitro model of E. coli infection, krill oil administration reduced inflammation, sped wound healing, increased cell survival, and reduced bacterial invasion[*].
#8: Increases Lean Muscle Mass
Krill oil may increase lean muscle mass gains from resistance training[*].
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 21 healthy participants, three grams of daily krill oil during an eight-week resistance training program increased lean muscle mass and strength levels in participants who received the supplement[*].
#9: Eases PMS Symptoms
Generally speaking, omega-3 fatty acid supplements like krill oil can reduce pain and inflammation in your body[*][*][*].
Multiple studies have found that omega-3 supplements containing EPA and DHA can decrease pain during women’s cycles and mitigate other premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms, including depression, fatigue, bloating, and lack of focus[*].
Omega-3 supplementation can even lead to participants reducing their use of pain relievers[*][*][*][*][*].
A double-blind, randomized control with 70 female participants found that krill oil decreased their stress levels, improved their depression, lowered their irritability, and decreased their use of drugs for pain relief[*].
The same study found that compared to fish oil, women who took krill oil took significantly less medication for pain.
Premenstrual pain isn’t the only discomfort krill oil may help mitigate.
#10: Helps Dry Eyes
According to a study involving 32,470 women, diets low in omega-3 fatty acids are more likely to cause dry eye disease, a painful condition that can result in poor vision[*].
In a separate double-blind, randomized study of 54 participants, 1.5 grams of daily krill oil reduced eye inflammation, redness, and other dry eye symptoms over 90 days[*].
Taking krill oil supplements is a safe and effective way to increase your intake of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA.
Most krill oil capsules are smaller than fish oil capsules and are less likely to cause fishy aftertaste or fishy burps.
The best time to take krill oil supplements is before meals. You can take your daily dose of krill oil in a single dose or two divided doses.
Krill Oil Dosage
The American Heart Association recommends 250-500 milligrams of combined EPA and DHA per day. But most studies demonstrating krill oil benefits use between 300 milligrams and three grams of krill oil, providing approximately 45-450 milligrams combined EPA and DHA per day[*].
If you’re taking krill oil for wellness and disease prevention, try taking between one and three grams of krill oil per day.
According to one study, krill oil has anti-inflammatory benefits when taken at a relatively low dose of 300 milligrams per day[*].
If you’re taking krill oil supplements for anti-inflammatory benefits, you could start with a 300-milligram daily dose to gauge the effects, then consider adding more after several weeks.
Side effects of taking krill oil supplements are rare and usually mild. In studies, the most common reported side effects were fishy breath, headache, diarrhea, bloating, stomach cramps, and constipation[*].
If you have an allergy to seafood, shellfish, or crustaceans, don’t use krill oil without speaking to a physician first.
People with bleeding disorders, or who are taking blood thinners like coumadin or other medications or supplements with blood-thinning or anticoagulant properties (e.g. aspirin or NSAIDs), should use krill oil cautiously and with medical supervision.
Both krill and fish oil can increase the effects of blood-thinning drugs. If you have surgery coming up, stop taking krill oil for at least two weeks before and after surgery.
There is a chance that krill oil supplements could lower your blood sugar or enhance the action of hypoglycemic drugs. If you have type 2 diabetes, or use drugs to manage your blood glucose, monitor your blood sugar carefully and speak to your doctor first if you want to take krill oil.
Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should also seek professional medical advice before taking krill oil.
You Can Reap Krill Oil Benefits
Krill oil as a dietary supplement can improve your heart health, enhance cognition, decrease inflammation, ease PMS symptoms, and more.
Taking krill oil provides all the same health benefits as fish oil, but krill has several distinct advantages.
Krill oil is also more stable at room temperature than fish oil thanks to its antioxidant content, and it also contains vitamins and phospholipids not found in fish oil.
Because the EPA and DHA in krill oil are attached to phospholipids, it’s also more bioavailable than fish oil. That means a lower dose of krill oil has equivalent effects to a higher dose of fish oil[*][*].
Omega-3 supplements like krill oil are an excellent idea if you don’t eat seafood often, or if you want to improve your omega-3 to omega-6 ratios for disease prevention and better health.
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